Vinyl chloride risks and detox possibilities.
*By request in my Chat group for people at risk in Ohio from the train derailment.
This TikTok by someone with experience and a long history following industrial accidents is important to watch. See the video - brief, it’s a Tiktok, (t.me/deNutrientsChat/32891). He says the media have been reporting error filled and No need to worry messages and that the pattern of previous industrial accidents is to minimize risk to the public. The media and politicians tend to simply repeat what the business has to say about the incident, whichever incident. And that in this case the train company has been down-playing the enormous extent of the disaster.
Addition: a follow-up post focuses on the self-care strategies and doesn’t have all the science excerpts in this post. Follow-up post:
The train carried an enormous amount of vinyl chloride, far more than a previous spill that occurred in New Jersey and was cleaned up without it burning.
TikTok video: (t.me/deNutrientsChat/32891)
Errors discussed in the TikTok video: Vinyl chloride is a highly toxic and flammable material transported as a liquid but would turn gaseous and combustible as soon as it met air. It is used to make polyvinyl chloride which is a plastic that would be not immediately toxic if dumped or gaseous or flammable. Vinyl chloride is a carcinogen with history of liver, breast and brain cancer risks.
“Routes of Exposure [to Vinyl Chloride] - Inhalation:
Inhalation is the primary route of exposure, and vinyl chloride is readily absorbed from the lungs. Its odor threshold is too high to provide an adequate warning of hazardous concentrations. The odor of vinyl chloride becomes detectable at around 3,000 ppm and the OSHA PEL is 1 ppm (8-hour TWA). Therefore, workers can be overexposed to vinyl chloride without being aware of its presence. A 5-minute exposure to airborne concentrations of 8,000 ppm can cause dizziness. As airborne levels increase to 20,000 ppm, effects can include drowsiness, loss of coordination, visual and auditory abnormalities, disorientation, nausea, headache, and burning or tingling of the extremities. Exposure to higher concentrations of vinyl chloride for longer durations can cause death, presumably due to central nervous system (CNS) and respiratory depression. The gas is heavier than air and can cause asphyxiation in poorly ventilated or enclosed spaces.
Children exposed to the same levels of vinyl chloride as adults may receive a larger dose because they have greater lung surface area:body weight ratios and increased minute volumes:weight ratios. In addition, they may be exposed to higher levels than adults in the same location because of their short stature and the higher levels of vinyl chloride found nearer to the ground.”
The primary target of vinyl chloride acute exposure is the CNS. Signs and symptoms include dizziness, ataxia, inebriation, fatigue, numbness and tingling of the extremities, visual disturbances, coma, and death.
Vinyl chloride can irritate the eyes, mucous membranes, and respiratory tract. Escaping compressed gas or liquid can cause frostbite or irritation of the skin and eyes.
Chronic exposure can cause permanent liver injury and liver cancer, neurologic or behavioral symptoms, and changes to the skin and bones of the hand.
Vinyl chloride's acute CNS effects are likely to be caused by interaction of the parent compound with neural membranes. Other effects appear to be caused by interaction of reactive intermediates with macromolecules.
Vinyl chloride is thought to depress the CNS via a solvent effect on lipids and protein components of neural membranes that interrupts signal transmission. Reactive metabolic intermediates may also cause specific target organ toxicity by covalently bonding to tissue or initiating destructive chain reactions such as lipid peroxidation. There may be a latent period of hours to days between exposure and symptom onset. Vinyl chloride is rapidly metabolized and the metabolites are eliminated in the urine.
Children do not always respond to chemicals in the same way that adults do. Different protocols for managing their care may be needed. (cdc.gov)
This sounds like TRP channel activation is occurring - stinging nettle or mustard gas like effects on skin and mucus membranes.
“Ca2+-activated chloride channels, especially anoctamins (anoctamin 1 to anoctamin 10) are expressed in many cells, suggesting that similar interactions between TRP channels with high Ca2+ permeability and anoctamins could be involved in numerous physiological functions in a wide range of cells, from epithelial cells to neurons.”
[…] “In neurons, chloride is generally believed to move inward upon activation of chloride channels, such as the activation of GABA or glycine receptors that causes hyperpolarization. This mechanism is involved in the inhibition of neural activities by GABA or glycine. However, in spinal cord neurons, chloride concentrations can be changed dynamically depending on tissue conditions such as injury or inflammation that reduce the expression of chloride transporters, including KCC2. Citation7 Intracellular chloride concentrations in neurons are also known to be high in early developmental stages when GABA may excite neurons. Citation8 Under those conditions, Ca2+ influx through TRP channel activation might induce chloride efflux, leading to depolarization. Thus, it is intriguing to speculate that functional interaction between TRP channels with high Ca2+ permeability and Ca2+-activated chloride channels with or without physical binding could be involved in various cellular functions depending on the intracellular chloride concentrations.”
Makoto Tominaga & Yasunori Takayama (2014) Interaction between TRP and Ca2+-activated chloride channels, Channels, 8:3, 178-179, DOI: 10.4161/chan.29001
*The line in bold may be why children are at greater risk - different impact from excess GABA. Thyme is an herb that modulates GABA. Phytonutrient modulators often help balance either too little or too much of an effect within physiology.
May or may not be relevant - in alcohol withdrawal part of the negative symptoms are from glutamate excess in ratio to GABA. (Brousse, 2012)
Anoctamins are ion channels that also have a role in membrane proteins and phospholipids. (Pedemonte, Galietta, 2014) Patient’s muscle cells that are deficient in anoctamin 5 have problems with membrane repair. (Chandra, et al., 2019)
“TMEM16 proteins, also known as anoctamins, are involved in a variety of functions that include ion transport, phospholipid scrambling, and regulation of other membrane proteins.” (Pedemonte, Galietta, 2014)
And the anoctamin-1 chloride channels may promote apoptosis of cells by inducing mitochondrial oxidative stress. (Allawzi, et al., 2018)
“Anoctamin (Ano)-1, a calcium-activated chloride channel, can regulate cell proliferation and cell cycle in multiple cell types.” […] “Ano1 activation increased mtROS, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, increased p38 phosphorylation, and induced release of apoptosis-inducing factor. mtROS inhibition attenuated Eact-mediated p38 phosphorylation. Pulmonary artery ECs isolated from patients with idiopathic PAH (IPAH) had higher expression of Ano1 and increased cell counts compared with control subjects” (Allawzi, et al., 2018)
“mtROS inhibition attenuated Eact-mediated p38 phosphorylation.” (Allawzi, et al., 2018) ←- Antioxidant support for mitochondria would likely help if overactivation of chloride channels is occurring, leading to mitochondrial damage.
Self-care thoughts - mitochondrial support, iodine, methyl-folate, magnesium.
Aside: I am not finding much on health prevention strategies, but my immediate thought is to assure adequate or extra iodine intake as chloride is a halide and we don’t want the body to take up excess halides in place of iodine. For cancer risk, loss of iodine is a causal factor. Extra iodine and selenium can help the body remove chloride, bromide and fluoride without risking too much thyroid hormone as the selenium is needed in the enzyme that breaks it down.
Loss of mitochondrial health is a cancer risk factor too so I would focus on all the mitochondrial support and reducing oxidative stress from other sources (EMF, worrying too much, inflammatory junk foods, excess alcohol, smoking, or other habits, more bioweapon jabs, etc.) See Mitochondrial graphic below.
Methyl folate helps mitochondria and protects against DNA damage that can be pre-cancerous. Food sources and the difference from folic acid are discussed in this article - excess folic acid can be cancer promoting - helping cancer cells while not providing the bioactive methyl group of folate. 5 Impressive Benefits of Methyl-folate, Vitamin B9, AKESO (migrelief.com)
Topical aids: Adequate magnesium would be critical for an over-acidity situation and coconut and aloe vera gel are both healing and soothing for skin. Black seed oil topically would also likely be helpful. the essential oil Frankincense is healing for skin - always dilute, only about 6-10 drops of total essential oil (plain or mixtures) per 1-2 ounces of carrier oil. Going a little stronger can be tingling to the skin. Straight topical use of many essential oils can burn - be caustic to the skin.
I find black seed oil soothing topically but too strong undiluted for use around the eye area.
Regarding the cancer risk - protect the liver and that helps protect everything else.
Liver support is critical when trying to remove toxins and protect against organ damage too; comment by Pat in my Telegram chat:
Liver looks like maybe the most important to start with: detox and cancer prevention.
Look in the link at health and scroll until environment pollution:
‘Vinyl chloride is a known human carcinogen that causes a rare cancer of the liver." EPA's 2001 updated Toxicological Profile and Summary Health Assessment for VCM in its Integrated Risk Information System (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Integrated_Risk_Information_System) (IRIS) database lowers EPA's previous risk factor estimate by a factor of 20 and concludes that "because of the consistent evidence for liver cancer in all the studies...and the weaker association for other sites, it is concluded that the liver is the most sensitive site, and protection against liver cancer will protect against possible cancer induction in other tissues." (t.me/deNutrientsChat/33000)
Bigger error: Vinyl chloride when burned → → Hydrochloric acid - toxic and airborne.
Bigger error discussed in the video - the fact that in this case the vinyl chloride burned is not a helpful way to clean up the mess faster - it just turned the mess into an airborne toxin instead - gobs of it - hydrochloric acid. The affected region may end up with acid rain damaging crops, trees and car paint. How that affects health - I’m not sure.
See the video - brief, it’s a Tiktok, (t.me/deNutrientsChat/32891).
Hydrochloric acid in the air will be bad for soil and water microbes as it is used as a disinfectant and ‘slimicide’ - a broad spectrum biocide for watery environments:
“Hydrochloric acid is also used to make many other chemicals and as a disinfectant and slimicide, a chemical that prevents the growth of slime in paper stock.
Other common end uses for hydrochloric acid include household cleaners, pool maintenance and food manufacturing.”
Hydrochloric acid, (ChemicalSafetyFacts.org)
“Acid Rain” is sulfur or nitrogen from industrial waste reacting with the air to create acid.
What is acid rain and its causes and effects?
Acid Rain: Causes, Effects & Solutions. Acid rain can be defined as rain or any other kind of precipitation that is unusually acidic, which means that it has higher levels of hydrogen and thus a lower pH-score. It is caused by emissions of nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide, which react with water molecules in the atmosphere and produce acid.
Acid rain, or acid deposition, is a broad term that includes any form of precipitation with acidic components, such as sulfuric or nitric acid that fall to the ground from the atmosphere in wet or dry forms. This can include rain, snow, fog, hail or even dust that is acidic.
Action step: *I would suggest taking precipitation and water samples regularly in the region of the train derailment and checking the acidity - pH lab strips if nothing else is available. Look for patterns of change. Talk to an environmental chemist. (edu.rsc.org/job)
What about health risk of hydrochloric acid?
Short term - chemical burns, caustic irritant to skin and mucus membranes. Eye and throat irritation. Larger doses have more risks, even blindness can occur with acute large amounts of exposure to air borne hydrochloric acid.
Long term exposure is also likely to cause eye and lung irritation and skin rashes.
“Long-term exposure has been reported to cause chronic bronchitis, dermatitis and photosensitization in humans. Rats that were chronically exposed to inhalation tests experienced lesions in the nasal cavity and other side effects. Long-term exposure to hydrochloric acid is unlikely for most consumers.” - (ChemicalSafetyFacts.org/ FAQs / Is prolonged exposure to hydrochloric acid dangerous?)
…except for those in the area of the Ohio train derailment.
Topical aids would likely be helpful - soothing and healing. Aloe vera gel for a burn-like condition, black seed oil, coconut oil, possibly a carrier oil with Frankincense essential oil or others beneficial for skin irritation. Tea tree oil, peppermint, chamomile, and lavender essential oils in a carrier oil are suggested for skin irritation or bug bites in this article. Essential Oils for Skin Irritation, Allergies & Itchy Skin | Flacheya.
Tea tree oil is one of the few essential oils that can be used directly on skin and is an antiseptic. It numbs minor cuts after an initial burning sensation and seems to reduce bleeding faster than without.
Fact sheets about Vinyl chloride:
Laboratory Safety Bulletin - Vinyl Chloride, 2008, (uwindsor.ca)
What is Vinyl Chloride?, (MDHHS)
The Basic Stack and Extended stack - on my new Prenatal/Child page (jenniferdepew.com) is good for the whole family and good for most any inflammation situation - the body needs a little extra help from more nutrient dense foods and maybe some supplements.
Disclaimer: This information is being provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of Fair Use and is not intended to provide individual health care guidance.
(Allawzi, et al., 2018) Allawzi AM, Vang A, Clements RT, Jhun BS, Kue NR, Mancini TJ, Landi AK, Terentyev D, O-Uchi J, Comhair SA, Erzurum SC, Choudhary G. Activation of Anoctamin-1 Limits Pulmonary Endothelial Cell Proliferation via p38-Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase-Dependent Apoptosis. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2018 May;58(5):658-667. doi: 10.1165/rcmb.2016-0344OC. PMID: 29100477; PMCID: PMC5946325. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29100477/
Addition: (Chandra, et al., 2019) Chandra, G., Defour, A., Mamchoui, K. et al. Dysregulated calcium homeostasis prevents plasma membrane repair in Anoctamin 5/TMEM16E-deficient patient muscle cells. Cell Death Discov. 5, 118 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41420-019-0197-z https://www.nature.com/articles/s41420-019-0197-z
(Pedemonte, Galietta, 2014) Pedemonte N, Galietta LJ. Structure and function of TMEM16 proteins (anoctamins). Physiol Rev. 2014 Apr;94(2):419-59. doi: 10.1152/physrev.00039.2011. PMID: 24692353. https://journals.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/physrev.00039.2011?rfr_dat=cr_pub++0pubmed&url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori%3Arid%3Acrossref.org
(Priestley, et al., 2003) Priestley CM, Williamson EM, Wafford KA, Sattelle DB. Thymol, a constituent of thyme essential oil, is a positive allosteric modulator of human GABA(A) receptors and a homo-oligomeric GABA receptor from Drosophila melanogaster. Br J Pharmacol. 2003 Dec;140(8):1363-72. doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0705542. Epub 2003 Nov 17. PMID: 14623762; PMCID: PMC1574153.
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